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Zeszyty Naukowe SGSP nr 47

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Zeszyty Naukowe SGSP nr 47

Artykuły do pobrania

Wpływ temperatury pożaru na wartość napięcia zasilającego urządzenia elektryczne oraz skuteczność ochrony przeciwporażeniowej urządzeń, które muszą funkcjonować podczas pożaru
Fire Temperature Effect on Value of Input Voltage Powering Electrical Equipment and the Effectiveness of Safety Protection of Required Equipment


Bezpieczeństwo pożarowe jest jednym z najważniejszych wymagań stawianych współczesnym budynkom. Wiąże się z nim szereg wymagań technicznych, które należy spełnić na etapie projektowania. Ponieważ najważniejszym elementem działań ratowniczych jest ewakuacja ludzi z budynku objętego pożarem, stawia się określone wymagania dla konstrukcji budynku oraz instalowanych w nim urządzeń elektrycznych i instalacji zasilającej te urządzenia.
Wśród instalacji elektrycznych stanowiących wyposażenie budynku wstępują obwody zasilające urządzenia elektryczne, które muszą funkcjonować w czasie pożaru. Przewody tych instalacji narażone są na działanie wysokiej temperatury, przez co muszą one zapewnić ciągłość dostaw energii elektrycznej przez czas niezbędny dla funkcjonowania zasilanych urządzeń. Towarzysząca pożarowi temperatura powoduje zmniejszenie przewodności elektrycznej przewodów, co skutkuje pogorszeniem jakości dostarczanej energii elektrycznej objawiającej się nadmiernym spadkiem napięcia oraz pogorszeniem warunków ochrony przeciwporażeniowej tych urządzeń.
Słowa kluczowe: bezpieczeństwo pożarowe, kable elektryczne, pożar, ochrona przeciwporażeniowa.


Przegląd zasad Public Relations instytucji publicznych – część 1
Review of Public Relations’ Rules in Public Institutions – Part 1

Szkolnictwo wyższe w obliczu kryzysu finansowego i gospodarczego
Higher Education Facing the Financial and Economic Crisis


The article discusses the problems related to the functioning of universities facing the worldwide financial and economic crisis, in developing globalization and market competition. The special attention has been focused on the most important changes in higher education reform as well as on the situation of universities in Poland, their way of financing and the financial results gained by them.
Keywords: higher education, education management, financial and economic crisis, demographic changes, market competition.
 

Przygotowanie do działania w stresie
Preparing to Act under Stress

Powiaty w kontekście wykonywanych zadań z zakresu zarządzania kryzysowego
Polish Districts Considering the Carried out Tasks of Disaster Management


This article presents the results of research carried out in the districts of Kraków, Lublin, Sandomierz, Starogard, Tuchola and Wroclaw considering the tasks in the field of crisis management. The study took place in the study period from May to December 2012, the study sample having random nature of the number of six hundred twenty-eight respondents.
In this paper, the definitions of the crisis management are shown and the main objective of the crisis management is determined. The paper describes the process of the crisis management phase consisting of prevention, preparedness, response and recovery. It also identifies the priority goals for each phase, which should be carried out in the districts. Then, one by one, it presents the tasks for the head of the district in crisis management under the Act of 26 April 2007 Crisis Management (Journal of Laws No. 89, item. 590, as amended.) and the Act of June 5, 1998 on the district government (Journal of Laws of 2001 No. 142, item. 1592), and it describes the results of the study, noticing the differences in the carried out tasks of the crisis management in the districts.
Keywords: crisis management, phases of disaster management, district, district tasks.


Przegląd aktów prawnych i norm związanych z zagadnieniem ewakuacji
The Review of Legal Instruments  Relating with the Process of Evacuation
The paper discusses the national and international legal instruments relating to the process of evacuation of endangered objects. It shows how the domestic and international (European and the British) legislations improve the security of buildings. The foreign standards that are used to estimate the evacuation time have been presented.
Keywords: safety in buildings, people evacuation, estimating of the evacuation time.


Rozwój techniki komputerowej i jej zastosowanie w symulatorach szkoleniowych
Computer Technology Development. It’s Application in Training Simulators

The article presents issues connected with modern computer technology usage in training simulators. Virtual reality is unlimited area of training capabilities depend on creators invention. Present computer hardware and software potential is continuously growing. Technological development forms a new digital culture and global society identity. High-tech information tools access grows up. The users’ requirements and needs towards next hardware and software versions and generations grow up. Unfortunately the article confirms that graphical level and dynamic contest of existing computer virtual simulators designed for training uniformed services leave much and lose much in confrontation with the newest computer and console games. A distinct regression compels the change of philosophy represented by the US or Great Britain armies that were focused on designing their own solutions and IT products. Astronomical financial resources assigned for topical reason proved to be a droplet in global computer science market. That’s why prepared graphical engines are adopted in training simulators construction which enable transition into appropriately higher level of representing real world and the ruling physics laws.
Keywords: computer technology, Internet, IT market, simulator, graphic engine.

Analiza wpływu wysokiej temperatury na zmianę wybranych parametrów wytrzymałościowych fibrobetonu z dodatkiem włókien polipropylenowych
Analysis of Influence of High Temperature on Changes of the Selected Strength Parameters of Fiber Reinforced Concrete with Polypropylene Fibers


Analizy CFD w procesie projektowania systemów ochrony przeciwpożarowej
CFD Analysis in the Fire Protection Systems Designing Process
The article presents the selected examples of the CFD analysis application during the designing process of fire protection systems in buildings. At present the CFD simulations are mainly used in designing the gravitation and mechanical systems of smoke venting. As the presented examples show, the usefulness of such analysis is much bigger. They show the wide range of possibilities  of  the analysis of numerical liquid mechanics application  in the process of designing the systems of fire protection.
In the nearly future, we may expect the growth of simulation use. It is so, because of the possibility to design the fire resistant constructions  according to the procedure resulting from the eurocodes. We must remember that the more detailed and developed numerical  analysis  are the more competent the persons making them should be.
Keywords: fire, CFD analysis, fire simulations, fire strength of constructions.


Badanie emisji tlenku węgla przy zastosowaniu żeliwnych wkładów kominkowych
Investigation of Carbon Monoxide Emission During Exploitation of Cast Iron Fire-Place


Interaktywna modułowa platforma oceny zagrożenia pożarowego budynków jako narzędzie wspomagające projektowanie budynków i obiektów budowlanych
Interactive Modular Platform of Buildings Fire Risk Evaluation as a Tool to Support the Designing of Buildings and Premises
 
The priority research area, which the article deals with, is the commonly understood buildings fire safety, which should be understood as people safety. It solves the problem of the support for the designers and surveyors in undertaking decisions considering their technical knowledge dealing with various solutions aiming at delivering the appropriate fire safety level of the building or building premises.
The article presents the assumptions of the prototype being designed. It is the prototype of the Interactive Modular Platform of Buildings Fire Risk Evaluation which makes data processing possible. It uses IT systems in the field of algorithms, mechanisms and schemes of conducting while evaluating the fire risk in buildings or other building premises ,using the technical knowledge.
The main task , which should be drown up, concerns the interactive modules which could help in making certain calculations or could direct the user to more sophisticated tools. Entering data should be supported by the contextually changeable questions, recommendations as well as the knowledge and references. Such task requires the systematic approach and constructing procedural structure of adequate way of conduct, appropriate to majority of problems which ,at the moment, are difficult to deal with. The very important task is to construct a net of logical and functional connections between individual modules. To draw up few modules it is required to build material experimental and technological data bases . The data will be used in the system and processed according to the needs.
Keywords: fire, building, buildings fire safety, regulations.


Jak sporządzić dobrą instrukcję bezpieczeństwa pożarowego?
How to Prepare Proper Fire Safety Instruction?


System eksperckiej oceny zagrożeń i ryzyka pożarowego w budynkach
The System of Expertise Evaluation of Fire Threat and Fire Risk in Buildings
The article describes the system of expertise evaluation of fire threat and fire risk in buildings. The system is presently being developed in the Main School of Fire Service. In order to equip the groups of designers, specialists and verification bodies with understandable and easy available tools, it is necessary to build such a system. It will be developed according to the needs, to support and improve the state designing and constructing process in the area of fire safety engineering.
The system offers the following parametric and analytical modules: premises geometry, fire strength, convection column, smoke generation, detection, ventilation, evacuation, intervention, construction, sensitivity criteria, risk.
Keywords: threat assesment, risk, ventilation, evacuation, intervention.


Wpływ wybranych warunków atmosferycznych na czas retencji gazów gaśniczych
Effects of Temperature, Pressure and Humidity on Retention Time Extinguishing Gases


Zastosowanie danych z kalorymetru stożkowego do analizy wpływu środka ogniochronnego materiału polimerowego ulegającego spalaniu na zmiany zadymienia w przestrzeni ograniczonej
The Use of Data from the Conic Calorimeter to Analyze the Influence of the Polymer Material Fire Resistance Agent Undergoing Combustion on the Changes of Smoke Logging in the Limited Space

The paper has analyzed the influence of selected fire resistance agents on the parameters of heat and smoke release from the polymer materials defined by the conic colorimeter and on the parameters of smoke logging zones in the rooms system. For the research material , the authors selected the polymer structural materials which are not modified and fire resistant modified such as : oak timber, epoxide resins on the basis of Epidian 5, and fitting materials such as polyurethane foams. On the basis of conducted analysis the positive correlation between the parameters obtained by the conic colorimeter and the parameters of one or two zones modeled smoke logging for the simple system of two rooms, has been obtained.
Keywords: wood fire resistance agents, heat release rate, smoke, range of visibility.

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